Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) are materials that have a large economic importance in industry and whose supply has a high risk of disruption. As such, these can be considered essential to society, namely as the building blocks for our green and digital economy.
The Center for Minerals and Materials (MiMa) under the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has reviewed the CRM resource potential of Greenland. This highlighted the Gardar alkaline province in South Greenland as an exceptional accumulation of CRMs. This is documented by the known rare earth element deposits, some also hosting very signifcant lithium, fuorite, tantalum, niobium, hafnium and/or zirconium resources, namely the very large deposits at Kvanefeld/Kuannersuit, Kringlerne/Killavaat Alannguat and Motzfeldt. East Greenland stands out by hosting the very large Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit and the large platinum group metals, gold, titanium and vanadium Skaergaard deposit, both related to Palaeogene intrusions, as well as the very large evaporitic Karstryggen strontium deposit. Additionally, and due to its relatively underexplored status, East Greenland can be considered to still hold a signifcant potential for yet undiscovered deposits of these commodities.
Furthermore, this area also holds a signifcant potential for granite-related tungsten, tin, and antimony, as well as sedimentary copper mineralisation. The West Greenland Palaeogene Province is thought to hold a large potential for conduit-type nickel-copper-cobalt-platinum group metals mineralisation. West Greenland also hosts the large feldspar deposits at Majoqqap Qaava and Qaqortorsuaq and the large rare earth element and phosphorus Sarfartoq deposit. The Palaeoproterozoic terranes in West, South and East Greenland, have a substantial potential for hosting undiscovered deposits of graphite, exemplifed by the large Amitsoq deposit in South Greenland. The Thule black sands province, in North West Greenland, holds a signifcant titanium endowment, illustrated by the Moriusaq deposit. Finally, the Palaeozoic Franklinian Basin of North Greenland has a very signifcant potential for zinc and lead deposits, from which gallium and germanium can be possible by-products.